At The Reading Clinic we believe in evidence-based practice. Before the clinic was established, a full review of the scientific literature was conducted and the results were incorporated into our program. We continue to keep up with the latest research and add to or modify our approach based on the recommendations.

'Reading instruction should be based on the evidence of sound research'.
(Ministry of Education of Ontario, The Report of the Expert Panel on Early Reading in Ontario, 2003)

Twenty years of reading research has shown that (assuming a normal amount of exposure to print) the primary causes of a difficulty learning to read are:


The following websites will provide you with a good start if you're interested in reviewing the research:

   The Ontario branch of the International Dyslexia Association is a treasure trove of information for both parents and educators.  As well, they hold a yearly one day conference in Toronto in November with sessions for both parents & teachers.  We encourage you to visit their site to learn more.

Click on Jan MacLean's free webinar teaching early letter learning for struggling readers!


Susan Hall has written a very easy-to-read article (see page 8) about the importance and effectiveness of early intervention. It was published in the Summer 2004 edition of Communique, which is the newsletter of the Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario.

The meta-analysis done for phonemic awareness instruction has been published in the Reading Research Quarterly vol. 36 #3 (pp 250-287). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence for the National Reading Panel's meta-analysis.


Shaywitz, Sally, MD. Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level.
Knopf Publishing Group, January 2005, ISBN-13: 9780679781592

Dr. Sally Shaywitz, a pediatrician and neuroscientist, is the co-director of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention. Shaywitz demystifies the roots of dyslexia and offers parents and educators hope that children with reading problems can be helped. According to Shaywitz, there is now clear scientific evidence that the brain of the dyslexic reader is activated in a different area than that of the nonimpaired reader. The dyslexic reader may be strong in reasoning, problem solving and critical thinking, but invariably lacks phonemic awareness - the ability to break words apart into distinct sounds - which is critical in order to crack the reading code. The good news is that with the use of effective training programs, the brain can be rewired and dyslexic children can learn to read. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are of utmost importance, although even older readers can learn to read skillfully with proper intervention.